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International Conference on the Role of the African Youth on the Continent and in the Diaspora in the 21st Century

Development of Western Civilization I.

Development of Western Civilization - II.

West African History 1000- 1960 - 400 Level Seminar.

Slavery & Emancipation.
History of Africa II (Since 1800).
Themes in Modern African History.
Islam, Christianity and Traditional Religion in African History.
Nelson Mandela: The Man, The Movement, and The Legacy.
History of Africa I (To 1800), Pre-Colonial African History (Survey Course).

This course analyses the history of slavery and emancipation in Africa and the Americas from the late 16th century to the early twentieth century. It considers the origins and development of slavery in Africa and the Americas, the development of the plantation system of the Americas, the demography and economics of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, the impact of the slave trade on Africa and the Americas, the abolition movement against slavery and the slave trade, and the nature of post-emancipation societies. It will also look at the theoretical literature on slavery.

Students will be expected to write four, short essays that examine selected themes in the historiographical literature on slavery and emancipation. Topics for these essays are to be chosen in consultation with the instructor. Each student will be expected to choose one topic
on Africa, one on the Caribbean and one on the Americas.

Reading assignments are to be drawn from the attached bibliography at the discretion of the student and the advice of the instructor.

1. Slavery and the Slave Trade: Definition
2. The Origins of slavery
3. Slavery, The Slave Trade and the Development of the Atlantic Economy
4. "Discovery," Technology, Capitalism and the Rise of the Slave Trade
5. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: Demographic Patterns and Historical Debates.
6. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: Impact on Africa and the Americas
7. Enslavement: Methods and Issues
8. The Demand: Plantations and Mines of the Americas
9. Slavery in the U.S.A.: The "Peculiar" Institution.
10. Slave Life and Culture in the Americas
11. Slavery in Africa: A Response to the Export Trade?
12. Abolition of the Slave Trade
13. "Legitimate Trade" and the Rise of Slave Economies
14. Emancipation in the Americas


A. African Societies

Ayittey, George B.N. Indigenous African Institutions. New York: Transnational Publishers, 1991. Intro. And chapters 2-4.

Curtin, Philip D. Economic Change in Precolonial Africa, vol, 1. Senegambia in the Era of the Slave trade. Madison: University of
Wisconsin Press, 1975.

Dike, K.O. Trade and Politics in the Niger Delta 1830-1885. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1959.

Hopkins, A.G. An Economic History of West Africa. London, 1973.

Law Robin. The Oyo Empire, c.1600 - c.1836: A West African Imperialism in the Era of the Atlantic Slave Trade. Oxford, 1977.

Polanyi, Karl., Arensberg, Conrad M. et al., Trade and Market in Early Empires. New York: The Free Press, 1957.

Rodney, Walter. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa.

Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800. Cambridge: C.U.P., 1998.

B. Slavery: A Definition

Miers, Suzanne and Igor Kopytoff. (eds.), Slavery In Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977.

Claude Meillassoux, The Anthropology of Slavery: The Womb of Iron and Gold. London: Athlone, 1991.

Davis, David Brion. Slavery and Human Progress. New & York & Oxford: O.U.P., 1984.

Cooper, Frederick, "The Problem of Slavery in African Studies," Journal of African History, 20, 1 (1979): 103-125.

Walter Rodney. "African Slavery and Othewr Forms of Oppression on the Upper Guinea Coast in the Context of the Atlantic Slave Trade," Journal of African History, 2, 3 (!966): 431-443.

Nieboer, H.J. Slavery as an Industrial System

Robert O. Collins et. al. Problems in African History. New York & Princeton: Markus Wiener, 1994. Problem VI, Slavery In Africa. pp.253-296.

Norman A. Klein. "The Two Asantes: Competing Interpretations of `Slavery' in Aka-Asante Culture and Society," in Lovejoy (ed.), Ideology of Slavery in Africa. London: Sage, 1981.

Lovejoy, Paul E. Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

C. Western Africa.

Fage, J.D. "Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Context of West African History," Journal of African History 10, 3 (1969); 393-404.

Klein, Martin and Paul E. Lovejoy. "Slavery in West Africa" in Gemery, Henry A and Jan S. Hogendorn. (eds.), The Uncommon Market. Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic Slave Trade. New York: Academic Press, 1979, pp.1811-212.

Klein, Martin A. "The Study of Slavery in Africa", Journal of African History, XIX, 4 (1978): 599-609.

--------------. Islam and Imperialism in Senegal. Stanford, 1968.

--------------. "The Demography of Slavery in the Western Soudan: The Late Nineteenth Century," in Cordell, Dennis and Gregory Joel (eds.) African Population and Capitalism. Boulder, 1987.

--------------. "Social and Economic Factors in the Muslim Revolution in the Senegambia," Journal of African History, XIII, 3 (1972): 419-441.

--------------. and Roberts, Richard. "The Banamba Slave Exodus of 1905 and the Decline of Slavery in the Western Sudan," Journal of African History, 21 (1980):

---------------. Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Law, Robin. "Horses, Firearms and Political Power in Pre-Colonial West Africa," Past and Present 72 (1976): 112-32.

Gemery, H.A. and Hogendorn, J.S. "Technological Change, Slavery and the Sla

Inikori, Joseph. Forced Migration.

Curtin, Philip. The Rise and fall of the Plantation Complex. Cambridge: C.U.P., 1998.

Lovejoy, Paul E. "Plantations in the Economy of the Sokoto Caliphate," Journal of African History, 19, (1978): 341-368.

---------------. "The characteristics of Plantations in the Nineteenth-Century Sokoto Caliphate (Islamic West Africa)," American Historical Review, 84, 5 (1979): 1267-1292.

Manning, Patrick. (review article) "Slavery and the Slave Trade in Colonial Africa," Journal of African History, 31 (1990): 135-140.

----------------. Slavery and African Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

---------------. "Slave Trade, `Legitimate Trade, and Imperialism Revisited: The Control of Wealth in the Bights of Benin and Biafra," in Paul E. Lovejoy, (ed.), Africans in Bondage. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1986, 203-234.

Falola, Toyin. "Power Relations and Social Interactions Among Ibadan Slaves, 1850-1900," African Economic History, 16 (1987): 95-130.

Grace, John. Domestic Slavery in West Africa: With Special Reference to the Sierra Leone Protectorate, 1896-1927. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1975.

Hill, Polly. "From Slavery to Freedom: The Case of Farm Slavery in Nigerian Hausaland," Comparative Studies in Society and History, 18, (1976): 395-426.

Igbafe, Philip A. "Slavery and Emancipation in Benin, 1897-1945," Journal of African History, XVI, 3 (1975): 409-429.

Johnson, Marion. "The Slaves of Salaga," Journal of African History, 27 (1986): 341-362.

Kalinga, Owen J.M. "The Karoga War: Commercial Rivalry and the Politics of Survival," Journal of African History, XXI (1980): 209-218.

Latham, A.J.H. "Currency, Credit and Capitalism on the Cross River in the Pre-colonial Era," Journal of African History, XII, (1971) :

Manchuelle, Francois. "The `Patriarchal Ideal' of Soninke Labor Migrants: From Slave Owners to Employees of Free Labour," Canadian Journal of African Studies, 23,1 (1989): 106-125.

--------------------. "Slavery, Emancipation and Labour Migration in West Africa: The Case of the Soninke," Journal of African History, 30, (1989): 89-106.

Oriji, J.N. "The Slave Trade, Warfare and Aro Expansion in the Igbo Hinterland," Transafrican Journal of History, 16, (1987): 151-166.

McDougall, E. Ann, "Camel Caravans of the Saharan Salt Trade: Traders and Transporters in the Nineteenth Century," in Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine. and Lovejoy, Paul E. (eds.) The Workers of African Trade. Berverly Hills, 1985.

Roberts, Richard. Warriors, Merchants and Slaves: The State and the Economy in the Middle Niger Valley, 1700-1914. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987.

Roberts, Richard and Martin Klein. "The Banamba Slave Exodus of 1905 and the Decline of Slavery in the Western Sudan," Journal of African History, 21, (1980): 375-394.

Sanneh, L.O. "Slavery, Islam and the Jakhanke People of West Africa," Africa, 46, 1 (1976): 895.

Eastern and Central Africa

Miller, J.C. Merchant of Death.

Akinola, G.A. "Slavery and Slave Revolts in the Sultanate of Zanzibar in the Nineteenth Century," Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, VI, 2 (June 1972): 215-220.

Alpers, Edward A. Ivory and Slaves: Changing Patterns of International Trade in East Central Africa to the Later Nineteenth Century. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1975.

Campbell, Gwyn. "The East African Slave Trade, 1861-1895: The `Southern' Complex," The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 22, 1 (1989): 1-26.

--------------. "Madagascar and the Slave Trade, 1810-1895," Journal of African History, XXII (1981): 203-227.

--------------. "Slavery and Fanompoana: The Structure of Forced Labour in Imerina (Madagascar), 1790-1861," Journal of African History, 29 (1988): 463-486.

Cooper, Frederick. From Slaves to Squatters. Plantation Labor and Agriculture in Zanzibar and Coastal Kenya, 1890-1925. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1980.

Eastman, Carol M. "Women, Slaves, and Foreigners: African Cultural Influences and Group Processes in the Formation of Northern Swahili Coastal Society," The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 21, 1 (1988): 1-20.

Nwulia, Moses D.E. Britain and the Slavery in East Africa. Washington D.C.: Three Continents Press 1975.

Sheriff, Abdul. Slaves, Spices and Ivory in Zanzibar: Integration of an East African Commercial Empire into the World Economy, 1770-1873. London: James Currey, 1987.


Savage, Elizabeth (ed.), Special issue of the journal Slavery and Abolition: A Journal of Comparative Studies, "The Human Commodity: Perspectives on the Trans-Saharan Trade," 13, 1 (1992).

Willis, John (ed.), Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa. London: Frank Cass, 1985.

Slavery and the 'Numbers Game'

Curtin, Philip. The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census. 1969 Lovejoy

Women and Slavery

Porter, Gina. "A Note on Slavery, Seclusion and Agrarian Change in Northern Nigeria," in Journal of African History, 30 (1989): 487-491.

Robertson, Claire C. & Klein, Martin A. (eds.), Women and Slavery in Africa. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983.

Abolition & Emancipation

Eltis, David. and Walvin, James. (eds.), The Abolition of the Atlantic Slave Trade. Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1981.

Dumett, Raymond and Marion Johnson. "Britain and the Suppression of Slavery in the Gold Coast Colony, Ashanti, and the Northern Territories," in Miers and Roberts, 71-116*****

Burn, W.L. Emancipation and Apprenticeship in the British West Indies. London: Johnson Reprint Co.

Eltis, David. Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Fraginals, Manuel Moreno., et al. Between Slavery and Free Labour: The Spanish-Speaking Caribbean in the Nineteenth Century. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985.

Gann, Lewis. "The End of Slavery in British Central Africa: 1889-1912," in Klein, Martin A. and G. Wesley Johnson (eds.), Perpectives on the African Past. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1972.

Miers, Suzanne. Britain and the Ending of the Slave Trade. New York: Africana Publishing Company, 1975.

Miers, Suzanne and Richard Roberts. The End of Slavery in Africa. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1988.

The Caribbean & Latin America

Scott, Rebecca. Slave Emancipation in Cuba: The Transition to Free Labour, 1860-1899. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985.

Scott, Rebecca., Drescher, Seymour. et al. The Abolition of Slavery and the Aftermath of Emancipation in Brazil. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1988.

James, C.L.R. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Rebellion. New York: Vintage, 1963.

Klein, Herbert S. Slavery in the Americas: A Comparative Study of Cuba and Virginia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.

Schwartz, Stuart B. "The Mocambo: Slave Resistance in Colonial Bahia," Journal of Social History 3 (1970): 313-333.

Lovejoy, "Background to Rebellion: The Muslim Revolt in Bahia," .

Williams, Eric. Capitalism and Slavery

Barbara Solow and Stanley Engerman,

Richard Price, (ed.), Maroon Societies. Rebel Slave Communities in the Americas. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins, 1996.

Sidney Mintz
Barry Higman
Hillary McD Beckles

The United States

Eugene Genovese, Roll Jordan Roll. The World The Slaves Made.

Herbert Gutman, The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom.

John W. Blassingame, Slave Narratives.

Blassingame, The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South. New York: O.U.P., 1972.

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