This course analyses the
history of slavery and emancipation in Africa and the Americas from the
late 16th century to the early twentieth century. It considers the
origins and development of slavery in Africa and the Americas, the
development of the plantation system of the Americas, the demography and
economics of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, the impact of the slave
trade on Africa and the Americas, the abolition movement against slavery
and the slave trade, and the nature of post-emancipation societies. It
will also look at the theoretical literature on slavery.
Students will be expected to write four, short essays that examine
selected themes in the historiographical literature on slavery and
emancipation. Topics for these essays are to be chosen in consultation
with the instructor. Each student will be expected to choose one topic
on Africa, one on the Caribbean and one on the Americas.
Reading assignments are to be drawn from the attached bibliography at
the discretion of the student and the advice of the instructor.
1. Slavery and the Slave Trade: Definition
2. The Origins of slavery
3. Slavery, The Slave Trade and the Development of the Atlantic Economy
4. "Discovery," Technology, Capitalism and the Rise of the
5. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: Demographic Patterns and Historical
6. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: Impact on Africa and the Americas
7. Enslavement: Methods and Issues
8. The Demand: Plantations and Mines of the Americas
9. Slavery in the U.S.A.: The "Peculiar" Institution.
10. Slave Life and Culture in the Americas
11. Slavery in Africa: A Response to the Export Trade?
12. Abolition of the Slave Trade
13. "Legitimate Trade" and the Rise of Slave Economies
14. Emancipation in the Americas
A. African Societies
Ayittey, George B.N. Indigenous African Institutions. New York:
Transnational Publishers, 1991. Intro. And chapters 2-4.
Curtin, Philip D. Economic Change in Precolonial Africa, vol, 1.
Senegambia in the Era of the Slave trade. Madison: University of
Wisconsin Press, 1975.
Dike, K.O. Trade and Politics in the Niger Delta 1830-1885. Oxford: At
the Clarendon Press, 1959.
Hopkins, A.G. An Economic History of West Africa. London, 1973.
Law Robin. The Oyo Empire, c.1600 - c.1836: A West African Imperialism
in the Era of the Atlantic Slave Trade. Oxford, 1977.
Polanyi, Karl., Arensberg, Conrad M. et al., Trade and Market in Early
Empires. New York: The Free Press, 1957.
Rodney, Walter. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa.
Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World,
1400-1800. Cambridge: C.U.P., 1998.
B. Slavery: A Definition
Miers, Suzanne and Igor Kopytoff. (eds.), Slavery In Africa: Historical
and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin
Claude Meillassoux, The Anthropology of Slavery: The Womb of Iron and
Gold. London: Athlone, 1991.
Davis, David Brion. Slavery and Human Progress. New & York &
Oxford: O.U.P., 1984.
Cooper, Frederick, "The Problem of Slavery in African
Studies," Journal of African History, 20, 1 (1979): 103-125.
Walter Rodney. "African Slavery and Othewr Forms of Oppression on
the Upper Guinea Coast in the Context of the Atlantic Slave Trade,"
Journal of African History, 2, 3 (!966): 431-443.
Nieboer, H.J. Slavery as an Industrial System
Robert O. Collins et. al. Problems in African History. New York &
Princeton: Markus Wiener, 1994. Problem VI, Slavery In Africa.
Norman A. Klein. "The Two Asantes: Competing Interpretations of
`Slavery' in Aka-Asante Culture and Society," in Lovejoy (ed.),
Ideology of Slavery in Africa. London: Sage, 1981.
Lovejoy, Paul E. Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in
Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
C. Western Africa.
Fage, J.D. "Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Context of West
African History," Journal of African History 10, 3 (1969); 393-404.
Klein, Martin and Paul E. Lovejoy. "Slavery in West Africa" in
Gemery, Henry A and Jan S. Hogendorn. (eds.), The Uncommon Market.
Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic Slave Trade. New York:
Academic Press, 1979, pp.1811-212.
Klein, Martin A. "The Study of Slavery in Africa", Journal of
African History, XIX, 4 (1978): 599-609.
--------------. Islam and Imperialism in Senegal. Stanford, 1968.
--------------. "The Demography of Slavery in the Western Soudan:
The Late Nineteenth Century," in Cordell, Dennis and Gregory Joel
(eds.) African Population and Capitalism. Boulder, 1987.
--------------. "Social and Economic Factors in the Muslim
Revolution in the Senegambia," Journal of African History, XIII, 3
--------------. and Roberts, Richard. "The Banamba Slave Exodus of
1905 and the Decline of Slavery in the Western Sudan," Journal of
African History, 21 (1980):
---------------. Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in
Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Law, Robin. "Horses, Firearms and Political Power in Pre-Colonial
West Africa," Past and Present 72 (1976): 112-32.
Gemery, H.A. and Hogendorn, J.S. "Technological Change, Slavery and
Inikori, Joseph. Forced Migration.
Curtin, Philip. The Rise and fall of the Plantation Complex. Cambridge:
Lovejoy, Paul E. "Plantations in the Economy of the Sokoto
Caliphate," Journal of African History, 19, (1978): 341-368.
---------------. "The characteristics of Plantations in the
Nineteenth-Century Sokoto Caliphate (Islamic West Africa),"
American Historical Review, 84, 5 (1979): 1267-1292.
Manning, Patrick. (review article) "Slavery and the Slave Trade in
Colonial Africa," Journal of African History, 31 (1990): 135-140.
----------------. Slavery and African Life. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1990.
---------------. "Slave Trade, `Legitimate Trade, and
Imperialism Revisited: The Control of Wealth in the Bights of Benin and
Biafra," in Paul E. Lovejoy, (ed.), Africans in Bondage. Madison,
Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1986, 203-234.
Falola, Toyin. "Power Relations and Social Interactions Among
Ibadan Slaves, 1850-1900," African Economic History, 16 (1987):
Grace, John. Domestic Slavery in West Africa: With Special Reference to
the Sierra Leone Protectorate, 1896-1927. New York: Barnes and Noble,
Hill, Polly. "From Slavery to Freedom: The Case of Farm Slavery in
Nigerian Hausaland," Comparative Studies in Society and History,
18, (1976): 395-426.
Igbafe, Philip A. "Slavery and Emancipation in Benin,
1897-1945," Journal of African History, XVI, 3 (1975): 409-429.
Johnson, Marion. "The Slaves of Salaga," Journal of African
History, 27 (1986): 341-362.
Kalinga, Owen J.M. "The Karoga War: Commercial Rivalry and the
Politics of Survival," Journal of African History, XXI (1980):
Latham, A.J.H. "Currency, Credit and Capitalism on the Cross River
in the Pre-colonial Era," Journal of African History, XII, (1971) :
Manchuelle, Francois. "The `Patriarchal Ideal' of Soninke Labor
Migrants: From Slave Owners to Employees of Free Labour," Canadian
Journal of African Studies, 23,1 (1989): 106-125.
--------------------. "Slavery, Emancipation and Labour Migration
in West Africa: The Case of the Soninke," Journal of African
History, 30, (1989): 89-106.
Oriji, J.N. "The Slave Trade, Warfare and Aro Expansion in the Igbo
Hinterland," Transafrican Journal of History, 16, (1987): 151-166.
McDougall, E. Ann, "Camel Caravans of the Saharan Salt Trade:
Traders and Transporters in the Nineteenth Century," in
Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine. and Lovejoy, Paul E. (eds.) The Workers
of African Trade. Berverly Hills, 1985.
Roberts, Richard. Warriors, Merchants and Slaves: The State and the
Economy in the Middle Niger Valley, 1700-1914. Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 1987.
Roberts, Richard and Martin Klein. "The Banamba Slave Exodus of
1905 and the Decline of Slavery in the Western Sudan," Journal of
African History, 21, (1980): 375-394.
Sanneh, L.O. "Slavery, Islam and the Jakhanke People of West
Africa," Africa, 46, 1 (1976): 895.
Eastern and Central Africa
Miller, J.C. Merchant of Death.
Akinola, G.A. "Slavery and Slave Revolts in the Sultanate of
Zanzibar in the Nineteenth Century," Journal of the Historical
Society of Nigeria, VI, 2 (June 1972): 215-220.
Alpers, Edward A. Ivory and Slaves: Changing Patterns of International
Trade in East Central Africa to the Later Nineteenth Century. Berkeley
and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1975.
Campbell, Gwyn. "The East African Slave Trade, 1861-1895: The
`Southern' Complex," The International Journal of African
Historical Studies, 22, 1 (1989): 1-26.
--------------. "Madagascar and the Slave Trade, 1810-1895,"
Journal of African History, XXII (1981): 203-227.
--------------. "Slavery and Fanompoana: The Structure of Forced
Labour in Imerina (Madagascar), 1790-1861," Journal of African
History, 29 (1988): 463-486.
Cooper, Frederick. From Slaves to Squatters. Plantation Labor and
Agriculture in Zanzibar and Coastal Kenya, 1890-1925. New Haven and
London: Yale University Press, 1980.
Eastman, Carol M. "Women, Slaves, and Foreigners: African Cultural
Influences and Group Processes in the Formation of Northern Swahili
Coastal Society," The International Journal of African Historical
Studies, 21, 1 (1988): 1-20.
Nwulia, Moses D.E. Britain and the Slavery in East Africa. Washington
D.C.: Three Continents Press 1975.
Sheriff, Abdul. Slaves, Spices and Ivory in Zanzibar: Integration of an
East African Commercial Empire into the World Economy, 1770-1873.
London: James Currey, 1987.
Savage, Elizabeth (ed.), Special issue of the journal Slavery and
Abolition: A Journal of Comparative Studies, "The Human Commodity:
Perspectives on the Trans-Saharan Trade," 13, 1 (1992).
Willis, John (ed.), Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa. London: Frank
Slavery and the 'Numbers Game'
Curtin, Philip. The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census. 1969 Lovejoy
Women and Slavery
Porter, Gina. "A Note on Slavery, Seclusion and Agrarian Change in
Northern Nigeria," in Journal of African History, 30 (1989):
Robertson, Claire C. & Klein, Martin A. (eds.), Women and Slavery in
Africa. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983.
Abolition & Emancipation
Eltis, David. and Walvin, James. (eds.), The Abolition of the
Atlantic Slave Trade. Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press,
Dumett, Raymond and Marion Johnson. "Britain and the Suppression of
Slavery in the Gold Coast Colony, Ashanti, and the Northern
Territories," in Miers and Roberts, 71-116*****
Burn, W.L. Emancipation and Apprenticeship in the British West Indies.
London: Johnson Reprint Co.
Eltis, David. Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave
Trade. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Fraginals, Manuel Moreno., et al. Between Slavery and Free Labour: The
Spanish-Speaking Caribbean in the Nineteenth Century. Baltimore and
London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985.
Gann, Lewis. "The End of Slavery in British Central Africa:
1889-1912," in Klein, Martin A. and G. Wesley Johnson (eds.),
Perpectives on the African Past. Boston: Little, Brown and Company,
Miers, Suzanne. Britain and the Ending of the Slave Trade. New York:
Africana Publishing Company, 1975.
Miers, Suzanne and Richard Roberts. The End of Slavery in Africa.
Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1988.
The Caribbean & Latin America
Scott, Rebecca. Slave Emancipation in Cuba: The Transition to Free
Labour, 1860-1899. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985.
Scott, Rebecca., Drescher, Seymour. et al. The Abolition of Slavery and
the Aftermath of Emancipation in Brazil. Durham and London: Duke
University Press, 1988.
James, C.L.R. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San
Domingo Rebellion. New York: Vintage, 1963.
Klein, Herbert S. Slavery in the Americas: A Comparative Study of Cuba
and Virginia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.
Schwartz, Stuart B. "The Mocambo: Slave Resistance in Colonial
Bahia," Journal of Social History 3 (1970): 313-333.
Lovejoy, "Background to Rebellion: The Muslim Revolt in Bahia,"
Williams, Eric. Capitalism and Slavery
Barbara Solow and Stanley Engerman,
Richard Price, (ed.), Maroon Societies. Rebel Slave Communities in the
Americas. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins, 1996.
Hillary McD Beckles
The United States
Eugene Genovese, Roll Jordan Roll. The World The Slaves Made.
Herbert Gutman, The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom.
John W. Blassingame, Slave Narratives.
Blassingame, The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum
South. New York: O.U.P., 1972.
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