Course Director: Edmund Abaka
This course examines some of the major themes in West African History from 1000 AD to 1970 - state formation and growth of the Sudanic and Forest Kingdoms and Empires, the introduction and spread of Islam in West Africa and the major Islamic revolutions of the nineteenth century. The Slave and legitimate trades are also examined as part of the early European activities in West Africa. Later European activities encompass colonization, missionary activity and the establishment of colonial rule. The struggle for independence and the policies of the governments of some of the nascent West African states in the post-independence period are also analysed.
Apart from the general text, students are required to read at least three of the prescribed material (articles, chapters of books etc) for each week.
2 written papers - 70%
J.F.A. Ajayi & Michael Crowder, (eds.), History of West Africa. 2 vols.
Basil Davidson, Africa in History.
J.F. Fage, A History of Africa
Anthony Hopkins, An Economic History of Africa.
Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa.
Tiyambe Zeleza, A Modern Economic History of Africa
UNESCO African History Series vols 1- 7.
1. HISTORIOGRAPHY/SOURCES OF WEST AFRICAN HISTORY - African, Arab and European
a. Oral - oral traditions, drum language, praise poems etc.
b. written - travellersí accounts - African, Arab and European,
archival material - African archives, Caribbean archives, North American and European archives - English, French, Dutch, Danish and Portuguese.
e. Serology etc.
Yves Person, "Chronology and Oral tradition," in Martin A. Klein & G. Wesley Johnson (eds.), Perspectives on the African Past. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1972.
J. Ki-Zerbo (ed.), General History of Africa I. Methodology and African Prehistory. (abridged edn.). James Currey, California & UNESCO.
A.E. Afigbo, "Colonial Historiography," in Toyin Falola, ed., African Historiography. Essex: Longman, 1993. pp.39-51.
Philip Curtin, African History. New York: Macmillan, 1964, pp.1-22.
J. Ki-Zerbo (ed.), General History of Africa. I. Methodology and Prehistory.
2. STATE FORMATION: The Savanna
S.N. Eisenstadt, et al., The Early State in African Perspectives. New York: 1988, pp.1-27.
(i) GHANA EMPIRE
i. Rise of Ghana
ii. System of Government
iii. Fall of Ghana Empire.
Nehemiah Levtzion, "The Early States of the Western Sudan to 1500," in J.F.A. Ajayi and Michael Crowder, (eds.) History of West Africa. vol. I. Harlow, Essex: Longman. 1985 (third edn.), Chapter 4, pp. 129-138.
Adu Boahen, Topics in West African History. London, 1966.
(ii) MALI EMPIRE
i. Rise of Mali.
ii. System of Government.
iii. The role of Islam and literacy.
iv. The Decline and Fall of Mali Empire
Nehemiah Levtzion, "The Early States of the Western Sudan, in Ajayi and Crowder, History of West Africa. vol.I. Ch. 4, pp.138-142.
Adu Boahen, Topics in West African History. London, 1966, pp.13-22.
(iii) SONGHAI EMPIRE
i. Rise of Songhai Empire
ii. System of Government
iii.The role of Islam, education and trade to the growth of Songhai Empire
Nehemiah Levtzion, "The Early States if the Western Sudan," in Ajayi and Crowder, pp.146-153.
John Hunwick, "Songhay, Borno and the Hausa States, 1450-1600," in Ajayi and Crowder, History of West Africa vol. I. ch.8. pp.323-352; 356-365.
The Forest Zone:
Adu Boahen, Topics in West African History. pp.22-37.
Nehemiah Levtzion, "The Early States of the Western Sudan to 1500," in J.F.A. Ajayi & Michael Crowder (eds.), History of West Africa. vol 1. London: Longman, 1974, pp.78-119
Robin Horton, "Stateless Societies in the History of West Africa," in J.F.A. Ajayi & M. Crowder, (eds.), History of West Africa. pp. 78-119
Adu Boahen, Topics in West African History. Essex: Longman, 1986, pp.54-62 - on The Rise and Fall of the Asante Empire.
J.K. Fynn, Asante and Its Neighbours/ Ivor Wilks Asante in the Nineteeth Century./Wilks Forests of Gold
Akinjobin, Dahomey and its Neighbours
3. ISLAM: INTRODUCTION, SPREAD AND INFLUENCE OF ISLAM IN WEST AFRICA.
a. Introduction - trade and conquest.
b. Spread and Influence in West Africa.
I.M. Lewis, Islam in Tropical Africa. O.U.P., 1966, pp.76-91.
Cahiers D'Etudes Africaines, 4, 1 (1963): 127-150. (in translation).
Robert R. Griffeth, "The Dyula Impact on the Peoples of the West Volta Region," in Carleton T. Hodge, (ed.), Papers on the Manding. Bloomington: Indiana University Publications, 1971, pp.167-182.
Frances Anne Leary, "The Role of the Mandinka in the Islamization of the Casamance, 1850-1961," in Careleton T. Hodge, (ed) Papers on the Manding. pp.227-248.
S.A. Balogun, "Introduction and Spread of Islam in West Africa Before the 19th. century: a Reassessment," ODU: A Journal of West African Studies, 18, (July 1978): 3-25.
4. PRE - COLONIAL WEST AFRICAN TRADE
i. Nature of the trade
ii. Trade routes
iii. Items and conduct of the trade
v. Linkages with the international economy.
Claude Meillassoux, (ed.) The Development of Indigenous Trade and Markets in West Africa. London: Oxford University Press, 1971.
David Northrup, Trade Without Rulers. PRE - COLONIAL Economic Development in South-Eastern Nigeria. Oxford: Clarendon.
E.J. Alagoa, "Long Distance Trade and the States of the Niger Delta," Journal of African History, II, 3 (1970)
Margaret Priestly, West African Trade and Coast Society. London: O.U.P.
Kwame Yeboa Daaku, Trade and Politics on the Gold Coast 1600-1720. A Study of the African Reaction to the European Trade. Oxford: Clarendon, 1970
Dike, K.O. Trade and Politics in the Niger Delta. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959.
5. THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURY JIHADS.
a. Futa Toro and Futa Bondu
b. The brotherhoods - Wahabbiya, Qadiriyya, Tijanniya etc.
Robert July, A History of the African People. pp.185-188.
Murray Last, "Reform in West Africa: the Jihad Movements of the Nineteenth Century," in Ajayi & Crowder, History of West Africa vol II. London: Longman, 1974, pp.1-15.
D.W. Robinson, Chiefs and Clerics, Abdul Bokar Kan and the Futa Toro, 1853-91 (1975).
6. THE SOKOTO JIHAD.
a. The causes and effects of the Sokoto Jihad.
b. The Tijani Jihad of Al-Hajj Umar.
Jean Boulegue, with the collaboration of Jean Suret Canale, "The Western Atlantic Coast," in Ajayi and Crowder, vol I, ch. 12, pp.519-529.
B.G. Martin, Muslim Brotherhoods in Nineteenth Century Africa
Cambridge: C.U.P., 1976, ch.1.
Thomas Hodgkin, Nigerian Perspectives. London: O.U.P., 1969, pp.188-205.
Bradford Martin, "Al-Hajj Umar Tall, Samori Toure and their Forerunners," in Carleton T. Hodge, (ed.), Papers On The Manding. Bloomington: Indiana University, 1971, pp.159-166.
R.A. Adeleye, & C.C. Stewart, "The Sokoto Caliphate in the Nineteenth Century," in Ajayi and Crowder, History of West Africa. vol II, pp.86-132.
Webster, Boahen et al. The Growth of African Civilisation. pp.3-18.
7. THE SLAVE TRADE.
i. Difference between slavery and slave trade.
ii.Enslavement - issues and methods.
iii.Impact of the trade.
David Northrup, "The Ideological Context of Slavery in Southeastern Nigeria in the Nineteenth Century," in Paul E. Lovejoy, (ed.) The Ideology of Slavery in Africa. London: Sage Publications, 1981, pp.101-122.
Babatunde Agiri, "Slavery in Yoruba Society in the Nineteenth Century," in Lovejoy, Ideology of Slavery. pp.123-148.
Paul E. Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery. Cambridge: C.U.P, 1983.
Suzanne Miers & Igor Kopytoff, Slavery in Africa. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1977, 1-102; 123-153; 415-430.
Paul E. Lovejoy, & Martin A. Klein, "Slavery in West Africa," in Henry A. Gemery & Jan S. Hogendorn, The Uncommon Market. New York: Academic Press, 1979, pp.181-206.
Paul E. Lovejoy & Jan S. Hogendorn, "Slave Marketing in West Africa," in Ibid. pp.213-231.
Raymond Dumett, "Traditional Slavery in the Akan Region in the Nineteenth Century: Sources, Issues and Interpretations," in David Henige & T.C. McCaskie, (eds.) West African Economic and Social History. Madison: The University of Wisconsin, 1990, pp.7-22.
8. ABOLITION OF THE SLAVE TRADE AND LEGITIMATE TRADE
Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery.
Suzanne Miers and Richard Roberts, The End of Slavery in Africa. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1988.
Bernard Moitt, "Slavery and Emancipation in the Senegal Basin," The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 22, I (1989): 27-35.
Robin Law (ed.), From Slave trade to Legitimate Trade.
9. EUROPEAN ACTIVITIES ON THE WEST AFRICAN COAST.
Missionary Activity in West Africa.
J.F.A. Ajayi, Christian Missions in Nigeria. Longmans & Northwestern Press, 1965, pp.1-5; 269-273.
W.E.F. Ward, A History of the Gold Coast. pp.46-75; 59-96.
J.H. Parry, The Age of Reconnaissance. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1963.
See also P.M.J. McEwan, (ed.), pp.131-132; 133-138;
J.W. Fernandez, "African Religious Developments," Journal of Modern African Studies, 2, 4 (1964): 534-542.
10. PARTITION OF AFRICA.
a. Reasons for the Partition of Africa.
b. Berlin Conference and its impact on the scramble.
Robinson & Gallagher, Africa and the Victorians.
A. G. Hopkins. An Economic History of West Africa
Madina Ly-Tall & David Robinson, "The Western Sudan and the Coming of the French," in Ajayi & Crowder, History of West Africa vol II. pp.340-378.
Robert July, A History of the African People. pp.312-321.
J.D. Hargreaves, "The European Partition of Africa," in Ajayi and Crowder, History of West Africa vol. II. pp.403-428.
G.N. Uzoigwe, "European Partition and Conquest of Africa: An Overview," in Adu Boahen, (ed.), General History of Africa. VII. Africa Under Colonial Domination 1880-1935. California: Heinemann, 1985, 19-44.
11. AFRICAN RESPONSES TO EUROPEAN COLONIAL RULE.
Michael Crowder, Resistance.
Yves Person, "Samori and Resistance to the French," in R.I. Rotberg & Ali Mazrui, (eds.) Protest and Power in Black Africa. pp.80-143.
Adeleye, R.A. Power and Diplomacy in Northern Nigeria.
Kanya-Forstner, "Myths and Realities of African Resistance of African Resistance," Canadian Historical Association, 1969.
Okoye Mokwugo, African Responses. Ifracombe: Arthur H. Stockwell Ltd., 1964.
Oloruntimehin, B. Olatunji. "Franco-Samori Relations 1886-1889: Diplomacy as War," Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, 6, I (December 1971): 67-92.
Ivor Wilks, Asante in the Nineteenth Century.
Ronald Robinson, "Non-European Foundations of European Imperialism: Sketch for a Theory of Collaboration," in Roger Owen & Bob Sutcliffe, (eds.) Studies in the Theory of Imperialism. London: Longman, 1972.
Robinson and Gallagher, "The Partition of Africa," in F.H. Hinsley (ed.) The New Cambridge Modern History. Cambridge: At the University Press, 1962, ch. 12.
12. FRENCH AND BRITISH COLONIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEMS.
Michael Crowder, Senegal: A Study in French Assimilation Policy. London: Institute of Race Relations, 1962.
H.O. Idowu, "Assimilation in Nineteenth Century Senegal," Bulletin de I.F.A.N Serie B, XXX, 4 (1968)
Prosser Gifford, "Indirect Rule: Touchstone or Tombstone for Colonial Policy?" Britain and Germany in Africa. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1967, pp.351-393.
Michael Crowder, "Indirect Rule - French and British Style," in Martin A. Klein and G. Wesley Johnson, (eds.), Perspectives on the African Past. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1972.
13. DECOLONIZATION IN WEST AFRICA.
A. NATIONALIST MOVEMENTS IN BRITISH WEST AFRICA
a. Definition of nationalism
b. Difference between West African nationalism and European nationalism.
c. Early Nationalist Movements
i. A.R.P.S (Ghana)
d. Characteristics, aims, outlook and attitudes towards independence.
A. Adu Boahen, Topics in West African History.
-------------. Ghana: Evolution and Change in the Nineteenth Century.
Boahen, Webster & Idowu, The Growth of African Civilisation.
David Kimble, A Political History of Ghana 1850-1928. Oxford: Clarendon, 1963, chs. 6, 9 & 10.
14. THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN GHANA
Adu Boahen, Topics in West African History.
----------Ghana: Evolution and Change in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.
Boahen, Webster and Idowu, The Growth of African Civilisation
B.O. Oloruntimehin, "African Politics and Nationalism, 1919-1935," in Adu Boahen (ed.) General History of Africa. VII. Africa Under Colonial Domination 1880-1935. California: Heinemann, 1985, pp.565-579.
Eugene, P.A. Schleh, "The Post-War Careers of Ex-Servicemen in Ghana and Uganda," The Journal of Modern African Studies, 6, 2 (1968):203-220.
David Killingray, "Soldiers, Ex-Servicemen, and Politics in the Gold Coast, 1939-50," Journal of Modern African Studies, 21, 3 (1983): 523-534.
15. NATIONAL CONGRESS OF BRITISH WEST AFRICA.
Robert July, A History of the African People. pp.443-452.
Webster, Boahen and Idowu, The Growth of African Civilisation.
David Kimble, A Political History of Ghana. ch.10
16.NATIONALISM IN NIGERIA.
J.F.A. Ajayi, "Nineteenth Century Origins of Nigerian Nationalism," in Klein & Johnson, (eds.), Perspectives of the African Past. p.513-527.
A.E. Afigbo, "The Social Repercussions of Colonial Rule: The New Social Structures," in Adu Boahen, (ed.), General History of Africa. VII, pp.485-507
J.D. Hargreaves, Decolonization in Africa. pp.49-112; 121-129.
17. INDEPENDENT AFRICAN GOVERNMENTS AND DEVELOPMENTS AFTER INDEPENDENCE
a. Ghana and the First Republic
Dennis Austin, Ghana Observed. Essays on the Politics of a West African Republic. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1976.
Trevor Jones, Ghana's First Republic 1960-1966. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1976
Adu Boahen, Ghana: Evolution and Change. pp.166-205.
J.D. Hargreaves, Decolonization in Africa. pp.49-112; 121-129.
18. POLITICAL PARTIES IN NIGERIA AND THE POST-INDEPENDENCE PERIOD.
J.D. Hargreaves, Decolonization in Africa. pp.49-112
19: THE MILITARY AND POLITICS IN WEST AFRICA.
Dennis Austin, (ed.), Politicians and Soldiers in Ghana 1966-1972. London: Frank Cass, 1975. pp.1-55.
Dennis Austin, Ghana Observed. pp.102-150.
Samuel Decalo, Coups and Army Rule in Africa. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1976, pp.1-121.
William Gutteridge, The Military in African Politics. London: Methuen & Co., 1969, pp.1-20; 60-96; 141.
20. CONCLUSION: THE FUTURE OF AFRICA
Davidson, Basil. Modern Africa. A Social and Political History. London & New York: Longman, 1991.
Freund, Bill. The Making of Contemporary Africa. London: Macmillan, 1984.
Hobson, J.A. Imperialism. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1965.